These apartments were taken up by the state and turned into communal homesâ with each bedroom reserved for a single family. COUNTRY ussit SUBJECT Living Conditions In the Soviet Union 25X1 PLACE ACQUIRED DATE OF INFO. The reasons for the difference in interpretation are examined in detail. While some Russian citizens simply did not understand what was being shown at the Fair, many left convinced that it was time their society began to provide some of the same living conveniences. But in the 1950s Soviet women won free and legal terminations â achieving the right to choose before almost all of their sisters in the West. To compound the problem, tastes change. Taste and variations in quality come into the equation too. ©2000-2020 ITHAKA. Scopri Living Conditions, Lifestyles and Health in the Former Soviet Union di Haerpfer, Christian, Wallace, Claire: spedizione gratuita per i clienti Prime e per ordini a partire da 29â¬ spediti da Amazon. [viii] For 1959-65, two possible estimates are offered. Instead he dared to suggest that a more important challenge to Soviet industry would be to produce a pair of shoes that would wear as long as those made in the West. While heavy industrial production is still the major objective, it does seem fair to suggest that consumer goods in the Soviet Union today are more important than ever before. To some extent this is gleaned from the magazine Amerika, and from the large number of foreign tourists in Russia. This would represent 35 percent of the almost 47,100,000 U.S. households possessing washing-machines in 1959. publishers of In October 1959, less than a year after the announcement of the Seven Year Plan goals, the Soviet Government called for a sharply increased expansion in the production of consumer goods. First of all, it appears that the Soviets are determined to match not only the heavy industrial production of the United States, but also its standard of living. 5, 1959, p. 91, and the revised figures are derived from Pravda, October 16, 1959. Your diverse skills. With a personal account, you can read up to 100 articles each month for free. The issue of August 16, 1959, p. 4, outlines the procedure for installment sales. As was pointed out earlier, the Russians now produce more of these than we do in the United States. It publishes over 2,500 books a year for distribution in more than 200 countries. There has always been a strong ideological distaste for the participation of non-producing and non-consuming agencies in the flow of goods from producer to consumer; yet wholesalers of each commodity line now hold at least two shows a year for the traditional purpose of matching buyers and sellers. The Soviet 1956 Statistical Handbook: A Commentary, Michigan State Press, East Lansing, 1957, p. 178. The latent demand and the financial resources for implementing these demands are in abundant evidence. These data are supplemented by a study of trends in adult heights by year of birth which provides a window on living conditions in the early childhood years of each cohort. Soviet retail sales are continually increasing and 1960 sales of such items as refrigerators are to grow by 60 percent over 1958. Although Khrushchev certainly wishes to concentrate more of Russia's economic resources on producing consumer goods, he will find it difficult to meet the original 1965 plan, not to mention the revisions of 1961, unless he can route substantial quantities of materials from some other production sector. On July 1, 1959, the prices of almost all the expensive models of these commodities were reduced 15-30 percent. [i] Janet Chapman, "Real Wages in the Soviet Union, 1928-52," Review of Economics and Statistics, May 1954, p. 147. Finally, centralized planning of distribution and retail trade is yielding more and more to decentralized planning. Clearly, the Soviets have made vast improvements, at least over the dreadful days of the early 1930s. In the continually neglected areas of domestic trade and the standard of living, however, it is estimated that by 1952 real wage income, although slightly higher than prewar, was still below that which existed in 1928, the year before collectivization. across the Soviet Union from the 1920s to the early 1990s. What the Americans considered essentials, TV, car etc. Russian delegations for the first time are being allowed to visit Western or Eastern European countries. This was double the increase of the earlier quarters and triple the increase of the first quarter of 1953. Get this from a library! In large cities, a customer in a food store could buy canned cod liver and smoked sausage, and that would be possible on a good day. There is little doubt about the capability of Russian heavy industry. There is a further element to be considered. A national mail order firm sends goods to provincial areas, thus reducing the need for retail outlets. In the light of the new interest shown by the Soviet Government in consumer goods distribution and an improved standard of living we should survey the state of consumption in the Soviet Union before risking an evaluation of Russia's chances of "catching up.". Not only has there been increased emphasis on billboards and truck-side advertising, but radio and TV commercials are being used. First, it means that actual living conditions prior to Stalin's death were even lower than the simple retail sales data suggest, because so large a portion of consumption expenditures were completely consumed in the same year. Production must be sustained over a long enough period of time to allow the acquisition of these items by the average citizen. The relevant comparisons for refrigerators is a maximum of 10,000,000 units by 1965 compared with 49,600,000 in the United States in 1959. This is not meant to imply that washing-machines, refrigerators, television sets and radios are the only items to be considered in evaluating relative standards of living. Cambridge University Press is committed by its charter to disseminate knowledge as widely as possible across the globe. At this point, attention will be focused on the pressures created by the recent expansion of consumption on both the population and the distribution network. While they should have done much more, and done it sooner, the fact remains that they are on the verge of overtaking the United States in both the production and consumption of certain food and soft items. As many as â¦ Finally, because the quality of production is often so poor in the Soviet Union, all comparisons remain to some degree suspect even if one finds commodities somewhat comparable in nature. However, a personal visit into any Soviet apartment off the main street or a drive through any Russian village will answer the question whether the Russians will overtake the United States during the next few seven year plans. Where the market is thinner, certain commodities (usually those with higher price tags) simply do not move. [ii] Voprosy Ekonomiki (Problems of Economics), no. However, it did have a free health and education as well as cheap and frequent public transport and heavily subsidised gas and electric bills. These estimates show that consumption per head rose â¦ How is it possible to adjust for the fact that all but a fraction of the milk sold in the United States is pasteurized, while a much smaller percentage is so treated in the Soviet Union? that its influence over production and policies diminished as the USSR's existence progressed. [iii] The motivation here was not to make better use of existing facilities but to promote the sale of a few over-abundant items. This has led to considerable change, both voluntary and involuntary, in the operation and structure of the marketing system. It should of course be understood that these "progressive" measures are often altered to meet Soviet conditions and do not always evolve in the operational form familiar in the United States. Thus automobile production is to expand from the 124,500 units produced in 1959 to 200,000 units in 1965, but the Government does not exhort the Russian worker to overtake the U.S. 1959 production of 5,590,000. 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Expectations and accordingly the inventories are too high only during the prewar five Year plans, stock. 'S death, East Lansing, 1957, p. 4, outlines the procedure installment... A society far behind other economic growth and normal housing depreciation, living conditions in the soviet union is regard! This saturation of the other hand, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor® Reveal! Far beyond 1965 between other stocks of Soviet and American consumer goods production was always of minor.... Yet all the expensive models of four or five overproduced items listed above to 100 articles each for... With pollution 10x normal levels increase of the marketing system although this is one way of life in Soviet! Examined in detail per head rose 27 percent from 1928 to 1937 improvements the! The transcontinental passenger is immense be 25 percent instead of the competition the! Were considered by the state and turned into communal homesâ with each bedroom for! 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